Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that stimulate the activation of caspase-1, which in turn induces the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Recent studies have indicated that the inflammasome known as the NOD-like-receptor-family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome recognizes several RNA viruses, including the influenza and encephalomyocarditis viruses, whereas the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) inflammasome may detect vesicular stomatitis virus. We demonstrate that measles virus (MV) infection induces caspase-1-dependent IL-1β secretion in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1. Gene knockdown experiments indicated that IL-1β secretion in MV-infected THP-1 cells was mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome but not the RIG-I inflammasome. MV produces the nonstructural V protein, which has been shown to antagonize host innate immune responses. The recombinant MV lacking the V protein induced more IL-1β than the parental virus. THP-1 cells stably expressing the V protein suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that the V protein interacts with NLRP3 through its carboxyl-terminal domain. NLRP3 was located in cytoplasmic granular structures in THP-1 cells stably expressing the V protein, but upon inflammasome activation, NLRP3 was redistributed to the perinuclear region, where it colocalized with the V protein. These results indicate that the V protein of MV suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion by directly or indirectly interacting with NLRP3.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science