Mechanism of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle atrophied by immobilization

H Kondo, I Nakagaki, S Sasaki, S Hori, Y Itokawa

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140 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To clarify the mechanism of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle atrophied by immobilization, we measured the activities of antioxidant enzymes and xanthine oxidase (XOD) and carried out the cytochemical study of hydrogen peroxide in a typical slow red muscle, the soleus. Male Wistar rats (15 wk old), of which ankle joints of one hindlimb were immobilized in the fully extended position, were killed after 4, 8, or 12 days. The activities of Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu-Zn-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD), Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSHPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were measured spectrophotometrically. The XOD activity and the concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The cytochemical study of hydrogen peroxide in short-term organ culture was performed using an electron microscope. Increased Cu-Zn-SOD and decreased Mn-SOD in atrophy might reflect increased generation of superoxide anions in the cytoplasm rather than in the mitochondria. The source of superoxide anions in the cytoplasm might be the increased superoxide-producing XOD. Enhanced generation of superoxide anions and increased Cu-Zn-SOD activity in atrophy suggested the enhanced generation of hydrogen peroxide in the cytoplasm. Due to the unchanged activity of Se-GSHPx and the unchanged or slightly increased activity of catalase in atrophy, the ability to degrade hydrogen peroxide might not increase so much. Hence, hydrogen peroxide is expected to be increased in atrophy. The cytochemical study supported this expectation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E839-44
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology
Volume265
Issue number6 Pt 1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1993

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