Environmental stresses can reduce crop yield and quality considerably. Plants protect cell metabolism in response to abiotic stresses at all stages of their life cycle, including seed production. As the production of vigorous seeds is important to both yield and crop growth, we analyzed causes of yield loss and reduced grain quality in staple crops exposed to environmental stresses such as drought and temperature extremes, with a focus on the remobilization of nutrients and water status during seed filling. Because water is one of the factors that limit seed development, seeds must have mechanisms that allow them to withstand water loss during seed maturation. In addition, analysis of the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on transcription regula tion and signaling should help to elucidate the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In this review, we focus on nutrient remobilization, water mobility, plant hormones (gibberellins, abscisic acid, and ethylene), and ROS in sink and source organs and describe how rice, wheat, barley, soybean, and cowpea plants control seed maturation and germination under environmental stresses.