Background: We had previously reported an increase in trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels in patients with both compensated and decompensated heart failure (HF) and alteration in gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. Although a metagenome-wide analysis showed that choline-TMA lyase levels increased in HF patients, which TMA generation pathway from choline, carnitine, or betaine contributes to the increase in TMAO levels in HF needs to be elucidated. Methods: We conducted a metagenome-wide shotgun sequencing analysis of gut microbiota and measured the TMAO levels in plasma of 22 HF patients during the compensated phase and 11 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched control subjects, whose gut microbiota compositions were reported in a previous 16S rRNA-based analysis. Results: The abundance of cntA/B was positively correlated with TMAO, especially in HF patients, whereas that of cutC/D or betaine reductase was not correlated either in controls or HF patients. The abundance of cntA/B was mainly derived from the genera Escherichia and Klebsiella either in controls or HF patients. Conclusion: TMAO levels in plasma depend on the abundance of cntA/B in HF. Although it is difficult to exclude the involvement of confounding factors, microbial dysbiosis connecting the abundance of cntA/B in the gut and the increase of TMAO in plasma can be a therapeutic target for HF.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine