Microscopic deformation and strain hardening analysis of ferrite-bainite dual-phase steels using micro-grid method

Nobuyuki Ishikawa, Kyono Yasuda, Hitoshi Sueyoshi, Shigeru Endo, Hiroshi Ikeda, Tatsuya Morikawa, Kenji Higashida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract The local strain measurement method using nanometer-scaled micro grids printed on the surface of a specimen by an electron lithography technique (the micro-grid method) has been established. Microscopic deformation behavior of the ferrite-bainite steels with different bainite volume fraction, 16% and 40% of bainite, was evaluated. Strain localization in the ferrite phase adjacent to the ferrite/bainite boundary was clearly observed and visualized. Highly strained regions expanded toward the inner region of the ferrite phase and connected each other with an increase of macroscopic strain. The existence of hard bainite phase plays an important role for inducing strain localization in the ferrite phase by plastic constraint in the boundary parallel to the tensile direction. In order to obtain further understanding of microscopic deformation behavior, finite element analysis using the representative volume element, which is expressed by the axisymmetric unit cell containing a hard phase surrounded by a soft phase matrix, was conducted. It was found that the macroscopic stress-strain behavior of ferrite-bainite steels was well simulated by the unit cell models. Strain concentration in the ferrite phase was highly enhanced for the ferrite-40% bainite steel, and this imposed higher internal stress in the bainite phase, resulting in higher strain hardening rate in the early stage of the deformation. However, smaller ferrite volume fraction of ferrite-40% bainite steel induced bainite plastic deformation in order to fulfill the macroscopic strain of the steel. Accordingly, strain hardening capacity of the ferrite-40% bainite steel was reduced to a significant degree, resulting in a smaller uniform elongation than the ferrite-16% bainite steel.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12222
Pages (from-to)257-268
Number of pages12
JournalActa Materialia
Volume97
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 15 2015

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Bainite
Steel
Strain hardening
Ferrite
Volume fraction
Electron beam lithography
Strain measurement
Elongation
Residual stresses
Plastic deformation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

Microscopic deformation and strain hardening analysis of ferrite-bainite dual-phase steels using micro-grid method. / Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Kyono; Sueyoshi, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Tatsuya; Higashida, Kenji.

In: Acta Materialia, Vol. 97, 12222, 15.07.2015, p. 257-268.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ishikawa, Nobuyuki ; Yasuda, Kyono ; Sueyoshi, Hitoshi ; Endo, Shigeru ; Ikeda, Hiroshi ; Morikawa, Tatsuya ; Higashida, Kenji. / Microscopic deformation and strain hardening analysis of ferrite-bainite dual-phase steels using micro-grid method. In: Acta Materialia. 2015 ; Vol. 97. pp. 257-268.
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N2 - Abstract The local strain measurement method using nanometer-scaled micro grids printed on the surface of a specimen by an electron lithography technique (the micro-grid method) has been established. Microscopic deformation behavior of the ferrite-bainite steels with different bainite volume fraction, 16% and 40% of bainite, was evaluated. Strain localization in the ferrite phase adjacent to the ferrite/bainite boundary was clearly observed and visualized. Highly strained regions expanded toward the inner region of the ferrite phase and connected each other with an increase of macroscopic strain. The existence of hard bainite phase plays an important role for inducing strain localization in the ferrite phase by plastic constraint in the boundary parallel to the tensile direction. In order to obtain further understanding of microscopic deformation behavior, finite element analysis using the representative volume element, which is expressed by the axisymmetric unit cell containing a hard phase surrounded by a soft phase matrix, was conducted. It was found that the macroscopic stress-strain behavior of ferrite-bainite steels was well simulated by the unit cell models. Strain concentration in the ferrite phase was highly enhanced for the ferrite-40% bainite steel, and this imposed higher internal stress in the bainite phase, resulting in higher strain hardening rate in the early stage of the deformation. However, smaller ferrite volume fraction of ferrite-40% bainite steel induced bainite plastic deformation in order to fulfill the macroscopic strain of the steel. Accordingly, strain hardening capacity of the ferrite-40% bainite steel was reduced to a significant degree, resulting in a smaller uniform elongation than the ferrite-16% bainite steel.

AB - Abstract The local strain measurement method using nanometer-scaled micro grids printed on the surface of a specimen by an electron lithography technique (the micro-grid method) has been established. Microscopic deformation behavior of the ferrite-bainite steels with different bainite volume fraction, 16% and 40% of bainite, was evaluated. Strain localization in the ferrite phase adjacent to the ferrite/bainite boundary was clearly observed and visualized. Highly strained regions expanded toward the inner region of the ferrite phase and connected each other with an increase of macroscopic strain. The existence of hard bainite phase plays an important role for inducing strain localization in the ferrite phase by plastic constraint in the boundary parallel to the tensile direction. In order to obtain further understanding of microscopic deformation behavior, finite element analysis using the representative volume element, which is expressed by the axisymmetric unit cell containing a hard phase surrounded by a soft phase matrix, was conducted. It was found that the macroscopic stress-strain behavior of ferrite-bainite steels was well simulated by the unit cell models. Strain concentration in the ferrite phase was highly enhanced for the ferrite-40% bainite steel, and this imposed higher internal stress in the bainite phase, resulting in higher strain hardening rate in the early stage of the deformation. However, smaller ferrite volume fraction of ferrite-40% bainite steel induced bainite plastic deformation in order to fulfill the macroscopic strain of the steel. Accordingly, strain hardening capacity of the ferrite-40% bainite steel was reduced to a significant degree, resulting in a smaller uniform elongation than the ferrite-16% bainite steel.

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