Midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia in the community: The Hisayama study

Tomoyuki Ohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Jun Hata, Mio Ozawa, Daigo Yoshida, Naoko Mukai, Masaharu Nagata, Toru Iwaki, Takanari Kitazono, Shigenobu Kanba, Yutaka Kiyohara

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Abstract

Objectives To clarify the association between midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Hisayama Study, Japan. Participants Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 65 to 84 (mean age 72) followed for 17 years (1988-2005) (N = 754), 619 of whom had participated in a health examination conducted in 1973-74 (mean age, 57) and were included in the midlife analysis. Measurements The risk estimates of smoking status on the development of dementia were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up, 252 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 143 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 76 had vascular dementia (VaD). In late life, the multivariable-adjusted risk of all-cause dementia was significantly greater in current smokers than in never smokers; similar associations were seen for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in midlife current smokers. Meanwhile, no significant association was observed between past smoking and risk of any type of dementia in late or midlife. Multivariable analysis showed that smokers in midlife and late life had significantly greater risks than lifelong nonsmokers of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-3.49), AD (aHR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.09-3.61), and VaD (aHR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.34-6.20). Such associations were not observed for midlife smokers who quit smoking in late life. Conclusion Persistent smoking from mid- to late life is a significant risk factor for dementia and its subtypes in the general Japanese population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2332-2339
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume63
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015

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Dementia
Smoking
Vascular Dementia
Alzheimer Disease
Confidence Intervals
Proportional Hazards Models
Japan
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Health
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

Midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia in the community : The Hisayama study. / Ohara, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hata, Jun; Ozawa, Mio; Yoshida, Daigo; Mukai, Naoko; Nagata, Masaharu; Iwaki, Toru; Kitazono, Takanari; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kiyohara, Yutaka.

In: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 63, No. 11, 11.2015, p. 2332-2339.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia in the community: The Hisayama study",
abstract = "Objectives To clarify the association between midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Hisayama Study, Japan. Participants Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 65 to 84 (mean age 72) followed for 17 years (1988-2005) (N = 754), 619 of whom had participated in a health examination conducted in 1973-74 (mean age, 57) and were included in the midlife analysis. Measurements The risk estimates of smoking status on the development of dementia were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up, 252 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 143 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 76 had vascular dementia (VaD). In late life, the multivariable-adjusted risk of all-cause dementia was significantly greater in current smokers than in never smokers; similar associations were seen for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in midlife current smokers. Meanwhile, no significant association was observed between past smoking and risk of any type of dementia in late or midlife. Multivariable analysis showed that smokers in midlife and late life had significantly greater risks than lifelong nonsmokers of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.28, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-3.49), AD (aHR = 1.98, 95{\%} CI = 1.09-3.61), and VaD (aHR = 2.88, 95{\%} CI = 1.34-6.20). Such associations were not observed for midlife smokers who quit smoking in late life. Conclusion Persistent smoking from mid- to late life is a significant risk factor for dementia and its subtypes in the general Japanese population.",
author = "Tomoyuki Ohara and Toshiharu Ninomiya and Jun Hata and Mio Ozawa and Daigo Yoshida and Naoko Mukai and Masaharu Nagata and Toru Iwaki and Takanari Kitazono and Shigenobu Kanba and Yutaka Kiyohara",
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T1 - Midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia in the community

T2 - The Hisayama study

AU - Ohara, Tomoyuki

AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu

AU - Hata, Jun

AU - Ozawa, Mio

AU - Yoshida, Daigo

AU - Mukai, Naoko

AU - Nagata, Masaharu

AU - Iwaki, Toru

AU - Kitazono, Takanari

AU - Kanba, Shigenobu

AU - Kiyohara, Yutaka

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N2 - Objectives To clarify the association between midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Hisayama Study, Japan. Participants Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 65 to 84 (mean age 72) followed for 17 years (1988-2005) (N = 754), 619 of whom had participated in a health examination conducted in 1973-74 (mean age, 57) and were included in the midlife analysis. Measurements The risk estimates of smoking status on the development of dementia were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up, 252 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 143 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 76 had vascular dementia (VaD). In late life, the multivariable-adjusted risk of all-cause dementia was significantly greater in current smokers than in never smokers; similar associations were seen for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in midlife current smokers. Meanwhile, no significant association was observed between past smoking and risk of any type of dementia in late or midlife. Multivariable analysis showed that smokers in midlife and late life had significantly greater risks than lifelong nonsmokers of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-3.49), AD (aHR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.09-3.61), and VaD (aHR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.34-6.20). Such associations were not observed for midlife smokers who quit smoking in late life. Conclusion Persistent smoking from mid- to late life is a significant risk factor for dementia and its subtypes in the general Japanese population.

AB - Objectives To clarify the association between midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Hisayama Study, Japan. Participants Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 65 to 84 (mean age 72) followed for 17 years (1988-2005) (N = 754), 619 of whom had participated in a health examination conducted in 1973-74 (mean age, 57) and were included in the midlife analysis. Measurements The risk estimates of smoking status on the development of dementia were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results During follow-up, 252 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 143 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 76 had vascular dementia (VaD). In late life, the multivariable-adjusted risk of all-cause dementia was significantly greater in current smokers than in never smokers; similar associations were seen for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in midlife current smokers. Meanwhile, no significant association was observed between past smoking and risk of any type of dementia in late or midlife. Multivariable analysis showed that smokers in midlife and late life had significantly greater risks than lifelong nonsmokers of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-3.49), AD (aHR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.09-3.61), and VaD (aHR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.34-6.20). Such associations were not observed for midlife smokers who quit smoking in late life. Conclusion Persistent smoking from mid- to late life is a significant risk factor for dementia and its subtypes in the general Japanese population.

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