Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), a commonly used endodontic repair material, is useful for both basic and clinical research, and the effect of MTA on osteoblast differentiation has been well-defined. However, the effects of MTA on osteoclastic bone resorption are not fully understood. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of MTA solution in the regulation of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity using osteoclasts formed in co-cultures of primary osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. MTA solution dosedependently reduced the total area of pits formed by osteoclasts. The reduction of resorption induced by 20% MTA treatment was due to inhibition of osteoclastic bone-resorbing activity and had no effect on osteoclast number. A 20% MTA solution disrupted actin ring formation, a marker of osteoclastic bone resorption, by reducing phosphorylation and kinase activity of c-Src, and mRNA expressions of cathepsin K and mmp-9. A high concentration of MTA solution (50%) induced apoptosis of osteoclasts by increasing the expression of Bim, a member of the BH3-only (Bcl-2 homology) family of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that MTA is a useful retrofilling material for several clinical situations because it both stimulates osteoblast differentiation and inhibits bone resorption.
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