Missing data imputation of MAGDAS-9’s ground electromagnetism with supervised machine learning and conventional statistical analysis models

Muhammad Asraf H., Nur Dalila Nur, Nooritawati Md Tahir, Zatul Iffah Abd Latiff, Mohamad Huzaimy Jusoh, Yoshikawa Akimasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Data imputation studies include reconstruction or estimation of imperfect data gaps caused by system sensing failure, and non-responsive data transmission remains an open issue. In space weather applications, imputation of ground electromagnetism is significant in capturing the complex interaction of sun–earth prior to the subsequent analysis of the space weather effects. Key contributions to the demonstration of supervised machine learning (ML) imputation approach with artificial neural network, K-nearest neighbour, support vector regression (SVR), and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) for MAGDAS-9 ground electromagnetism dataset have not yet been established. A total of 1,585,950 data points were analysed with supervised ML models which included performance benchmark with statistical analysis namely zero value substitution, listwise deletion, mean substitution, and hot deck imputation. To achieve low reconstruction errors, different imputation models with hyperparameter tuned settings are varied, and computational time execution has been shown to contribute to imputation performance. Performance metrics measured by mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE),mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and execution time respectively demonstrate the capability of SVR to perfectly impute missing data for all ground electromagnetism components at an average of 0.314 MSE, 0.738 MAPE, closeness to 0.510 MAE and 0.91-second at various percentage level of data missingness. A comparison with traditional imputation shows that the supervised ML with SVR model has improved imputation performance by up to 80% of data gap. The outcome of the proposed imputation will benefit space weather applications for event characterisation, which will cover a large number of missing data in the MAGDAS-9 dataset.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)937-947
Number of pages11
JournalAEJ - Alexandria Engineering Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)


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