Modified creatinine (Cr) index, calculated by age, sex, pre-dialysis serum Cr concentration, and Kt/V for urea, is an indicator of skeletal muscle mass in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It remains unknown whether the modified Cr index predicts infection-related mortality in this population. We investigated the association between the modified Cr index and infection-related mortality. A total of 3046 patients registered in the Q-Cohort Study, a multicenter, observational study of HD patients, were analyzed. Associations between sex-specific quartiles (Q1–Q4) of the modified Cr index and the risk for infection-related mortality were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model. During a median follow-up of 8.8 years, 387 patients died of infection. The estimated risk for infection-related mortality was significantly higher in the lower quartiles (Q1, Q2, and Q3) than in the highest quartile (Q4) as the reference group (hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals [CI]: Q1, 2.89 [1.70–5.06], Q2, 2.76 [1.72–4.62], and Q3, 1.79 [1.12–2.99]). The hazard ratio (95% CI) for a 1 mg/kg/day decrease in the modified Cr index was 1.18 (1.09–1.27, P < 0.01) for infection-related mortality. In conclusion, a lower modified Cr index is associated with an increased risk for long-term infection-related mortality in the HD population.
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