Perception of sweet taste is important for animals to detect external energy source of calories. In mice, sweet-sensitive cells possess a leptin receptor. Increase of plasma leptin with increasing internal energy storage in the adipose tissue suppresses sweet taste responses via this receptor. Data from our recent studies indicate that leptin may also modulate sweet taste sensation in humans with a diurnal variation in sweet sensitivity. This leptin modulation of sweet taste information to the brain may influence individuals' preference and ingestive behavior, thereby playing important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis.