In addition to their digestive actions, bile acids modulate gene expression by altering the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα). The modulatory effects of bile acids have been shown to affect the expression of genes responsible for lipid metabolism as well as membrane transporters. Bile acids are secreted in response to food intake and accumulate in intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we identified soluble carrier protein family 22 member 4 (Slc22a4), encoding organic cation transporter novel type-1 (Octn1), as a PPARa-regulated gene and its intestinal expression exhibited circadian oscillations in a bile acid-dependent manner. Nocturnally active mice mainly consumed their food around the early dark phase, during which bile acids accumulated in intestinal epithelial cells. PPARa activated the intestinal expression of Slc22a4 mRNA during the light period, and protein levels of Octn1 peaked before the start of the dark phase. The bile acids that accumulated in intestinal epithelial cells suppressed the PPARα-mediated transactivation of Slc22a4 in the dark phase. The time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids regulated oscillations in the intestinal expression of Octn1/Slc22a4 during the daily feeding cycle. The results of a pharmacokinetic analysis also revealed that oscillations in the expression of Octn1 caused dosing time-dependent differences in the intestinal absorption of gabapentin (2-[1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl]acetic acid). These results suggest a molecular clock-independent mechanism by which bile acid-regulated PPARα activity governs the circadian expression of intestinal organic cation transporters. This mechanism could also account for interindividual variations in the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of Octn1.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine