Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan

Atsushi Hinenoya, Kensuke Shima, Masahiro Asakura, Kazuhiko Nishimura, Teizo Tsukamoto, Tadasuke Ooka, Tetsuya Hayashi, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Shah M. Faruque, Shinji Yamasaki

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Abstract

Background: Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli (CTEC) has been isolated from patients with gastrointestinal or urinary tract infection, and sepsis. However, the source of human infection remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to detect and isolate CTEC strains from fecal specimens of healthy farm animals and characterized them phenotypically and genotypically. Results: By PCR analysis, the cdtB gene was detected in 90 and 14 out of 102 and 45 stool specimens of healthy cattle and swine, respectively, and none from 45 chicken samples. Subtypes of the cdtB genes (I to V) were further examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplicons and by type-specific PCRs for the cdt-III and cdt-V genes. Of the 90 cdtB gene-positive cattle samples, 2 cdt-I, 25 cdt-III, 1 cdt-IV, 52 cdt-V and 1 both cdt-III and cdt-V gene-positive strains were isolated while 1 cdt-II and 6 cdt-V gene-positive were isolated from 14 cdtB positive swine samples. Serotypes of some isolates were identical to those of human isolates. Interestingly, a cdt-II gene-positive strain isolated from swine was for the first time identified as Escherichia albertii. Phylogenetic analysis grouped 87 E. coli strains into 77 phylogroup B1, 6 B2, and 4 D, respectively. Most of the B1 strains harbored both lpfA O113 and ehaA. Three and twenty-two cdt-V gene-positive strains harbored eaeA and stx genes, respectively, and seven possessed cdt-V, stx and subAB genes. The cnf2 gene, normally present in cdt-III gene-positive strains, was also detected in cdt-V gene-positive strains. Conclusions: Our results suggest that healthy cattle and swine could be the reservoir of CTEC, and they could be a potential source of human infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number97
JournalBMC Microbiology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 18 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Japan
Swine
Escherichia coli
Genes
cytolethal distending toxin
Escherichia
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Domestic Animals
Infection
Urinary Tract Infections
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Gastrointestinal Tract
Chickens
Sepsis

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan. / Hinenoya, Atsushi; Shima, Kensuke; Asakura, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Ooka, Tadasuke; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Faruque, Shah M.; Yamasaki, Shinji.

In: BMC Microbiology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 97, 18.04.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hinenoya, A, Shima, K, Asakura, M, Nishimura, K, Tsukamoto, T, Ooka, T, Hayashi, T, Ramamurthy, T, Faruque, SM & Yamasaki, S 2014, 'Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan', BMC Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 1, 97. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-97
Hinenoya, Atsushi ; Shima, Kensuke ; Asakura, Masahiro ; Nishimura, Kazuhiko ; Tsukamoto, Teizo ; Ooka, Tadasuke ; Hayashi, Tetsuya ; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan ; Faruque, Shah M. ; Yamasaki, Shinji. / Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan. In: BMC Microbiology. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 1.
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AU - Asakura, Masahiro

AU - Nishimura, Kazuhiko

AU - Tsukamoto, Teizo

AU - Ooka, Tadasuke

AU - Hayashi, Tetsuya

AU - Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

AU - Faruque, Shah M.

AU - Yamasaki, Shinji

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N2 - Background: Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli (CTEC) has been isolated from patients with gastrointestinal or urinary tract infection, and sepsis. However, the source of human infection remains unknown. In this study, we attempted to detect and isolate CTEC strains from fecal specimens of healthy farm animals and characterized them phenotypically and genotypically. Results: By PCR analysis, the cdtB gene was detected in 90 and 14 out of 102 and 45 stool specimens of healthy cattle and swine, respectively, and none from 45 chicken samples. Subtypes of the cdtB genes (I to V) were further examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amplicons and by type-specific PCRs for the cdt-III and cdt-V genes. Of the 90 cdtB gene-positive cattle samples, 2 cdt-I, 25 cdt-III, 1 cdt-IV, 52 cdt-V and 1 both cdt-III and cdt-V gene-positive strains were isolated while 1 cdt-II and 6 cdt-V gene-positive were isolated from 14 cdtB positive swine samples. Serotypes of some isolates were identical to those of human isolates. Interestingly, a cdt-II gene-positive strain isolated from swine was for the first time identified as Escherichia albertii. Phylogenetic analysis grouped 87 E. coli strains into 77 phylogroup B1, 6 B2, and 4 D, respectively. Most of the B1 strains harbored both lpfA O113 and ehaA. Three and twenty-two cdt-V gene-positive strains harbored eaeA and stx genes, respectively, and seven possessed cdt-V, stx and subAB genes. The cnf2 gene, normally present in cdt-III gene-positive strains, was also detected in cdt-V gene-positive strains. Conclusions: Our results suggest that healthy cattle and swine could be the reservoir of CTEC, and they could be a potential source of human infections.

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