While acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AMKL) occurs in children with (DS-AMKL) and without (paediatric non-DS-AMKL) Down syndrome, it can also affect adults without DS (adult non-DS-AMKL). We have analysed these subgroups of patients (11 children with DS-AMKL, 12 children and four adults with non-DS-AMKL) for the presence of molecular lesions, including mutations and chromosomal abnormalities studied by sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array-based karyotyping, respectively. In children, AMKL was associated with trisomy 21 (somatic in non-DS-AMKL), while numerical aberrations of chromosome 21 were only rarely associated with adult AMKL. DS-AMKL was also associated with recurrent somatic gains of 1q (4/11 DS-AMKL patients). In contrast to trisomy 21 and gains of 1q, other additional chromosomal lesions were evenly distributed between children and adults with AMKL. A mutational screen found GATA1 mutations in 11/12 DS-AMKL, but mutations were rare in paediatric non-DS-AMKL (1/12) and adult AMKL (0/4). JAK3 (1/11), JAK2 (1/11), and TP53 mutations (1/11) were found only in patients with DS-AMKL. ASXL1, IDH1/2, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and CBL mutations were not found in any of the patient group studied, while NRAS mutation was identified in two patients with paediatric non-DS-AMKL.
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