The mucosal organs of fishes are directly exposed to their aquatic environment, which is suited to the colonization and growth of microorganisms, and thus these barriers are considered to play an important role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing entry of invasive pathogens. Research on fish mucosal immunity have shown that mucosal organs such as gills, skin, intestines and olfactory organs harbor lymphoid cells, including T and B cells as well as dendritic-like cells. Findings related to immune responses following direct administration of antigens into the mucosal organs could help to shed light upon the development of fish mucosal vaccines. The present review highlights vaccine delivery via mucosal organs, in particular focusing on methods other than those of typical mucosal vaccine platforms, such as oral and immersion vaccines. In addition, we propose the hypothesis that mucosal tissues are important sites for generating cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with extracellular antigens.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Aquatic Science