Trans-boundary pollution is carried by currents and other flows. Litter from river basins flow into the sea, and currents and winds spread them along the coast. In Japan, many citizen groups, community based organizations, fishermen, divers, national and local governments, CBO and an international NGO have continued to clean up beaches, riverbanks and the sea bottom for some decades. Most of these activities are voluntary, but the costs accrued by local governments progressively multiplied. Beach and river litter have become serious social problems. Therefore, scientific and systematic countermeasures, multi-sectoral collaboration and international collaboration are essential.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Journal of Coastal Research|
|Issue number||SPEC. ISSUE 56|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Water Science and Technology
- Earth-Surface Processes