We conducted two parallel prospective, multicenter, phase II studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy-haploPBSCT) following myeloablative conditioning (MAC, n = 50) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC, n = 77). Event-free survival (EFS) at 1-year as for primary endpoint was 64% and 43% in the MAC and RIC groups, respectively. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 98% and 94% in the MAC and RIC groups, respectively. The incidences of grades II–IV and III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 18% and 8% in the MAC group, and 14% and 5% in the RIC group, respectively. Those of all grade and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2-year were 36% and 20% in the MAC group, and 27% and 20% in the RIC group, respectively. Overall survival (OS), EFS, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rate at 2-year were 68%, 54%, 10%, and 36% in the MAC group, and 44%, 35%, 20%, and 45% in the RIC group, respectively. Notably, 83% and 86% of patients who survived without relapse stopped immunosuppressant at 2-year in the MAC and RIC groups, respectively. Our results indicate that both MAC and RIC are valid options for PTCy-haploPBSCT for adults with hematological malignancies.
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