In the present study, we examined the effect of <I>N</I>-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutamate-modulating agent, on marble-burying behavior in mice. Fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) and mirtazapine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited marble-burying behavior without affecting locomotor activity. Similarity, NAC (150 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited marble-burying behavior without affecting locomotor activity. On the other hand, the antioxidant <I>α</I>-tocopherol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) had no effect on the marble-burying behavior. These results suggest that the glutamatergic system is involved in the marble-burying behavior, and NAC may be useful for treatment of OCD.