N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1)/Cap43 regulates tumor growth and metastasis in various carcinomas. In this study we examined whether and how NDRG1/Cap43 modulates tumor growth by human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. NDRG1/Cap43 cDNA was used to transfect HCC cell lines (KIM-1), and stable transfectants overexpressing NDRG1/Cap43 (KIM-1/Cap43) were obtained. Cell cycle analysis showed that KIM-1/Cap43 cells were arrested in the G 0/G 1 phase. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increase in p21 in KIM-1/Cap43 cells in culture under full confluency as compared with KIM-1/Mock. When KIM-1 cells, which are very low in NDRG1/Cap43 expression, were treated with mimosine, a G 0/G 1 cell cycle blocker, expression of NDRG1/Cap43 was induced in a dose dependent manner, together with p21 induction and CDK4 reduction. In vivo, KIM-1/Cap43 cells showed markedly decreased tumor growth rates compared with those of KIM-1/Mock. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated markedly higher p21 labeling index in the KIM-1/Cap43 tumor than KIM-1/Mock tumor, and lower CDK4 and Ki-67 labeling index in the KIM-1/Cap43 than KIM-1/Mock. In order to confirm suppressive effects of NDRG1/Cap43, we further established a stable transfectant expressing NDRG1/Cap43 (HAK-1B/Cap43) using another HCC cell line, HAK-1B. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increase in p21 and a decrease in CDK4 in HAK-1B/Cap43 cells in culture under full confluency as compared with HAK-1B/Mock. HAK-1B/Cap43 also showed decreased tumor growth rates as compared with its control counterpart in vivo. NDRG1/Cap43 overexpression thus induced cell cycle arrest at the G 0/G 1 phase accompanied by increased p21 and decreased CDK4 expression in HCC cells. NDRG1/Cap43 might play a key role in the cell cycle control of G 0/G 1 in HCC cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research