Liquid cell electron microscopy is a useful technique for the observation of chemical, biological, and mechanical processes in liquids at nanometer-scale resolution. This study investigated the generation and growth of nanobubbles using the Fresnel fringe method, which enabled us to determine the location of bubble interface; the nanobubbles were induced in the 600-nm-thick water sample in the cell, by the electron beam. Nucleation occurred first at the solid–liquid interface in the upstream side of electron beam, and this was followed by second-group nucleation at the downstream-side interface; all of the stable nucleations occurred on the solid surfaces. The size of the nucleated bubbles at the moment they became visible depended on the magnification used in the electron microscope, and a higher-energy density in the electron beam induced larger bubbles. The underlying mechanism was also considered in this study.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2017|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes