Research on the MgB2/Ni and MgB2/B multilayer films fabricated by an electron beam (EB) evaporation technique have been extensively carried out. The critical current density, Jc of MgB2/Ni and MgB2/B multilayer films in parallel fields has been suggested to be higher than that of monolayer MgB2 film due to introducing the artificial pinning centers of nano-sized Ni and B layers. Nanostructure characterization of the artificial pinning centers in the multilayer films were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS))-EDS to understand the mechanism of flux pinning. The growth of columnar MgB2 grains along the film-thickness direction was recognized in the MgB2/Ni multilayer film, but not in the MgB2/B multilayer film. Nano-sized Ni layers were present as crystalline epitaxial layers which is interpreted that Ni atoms might be incorporated into the MgB2 lattice to form (Mg,Ni)B 2 phase. On the other hand, nano-sized B layers were amorphous layers. Crystalline (Mg,Ni)B2 layers worked more effectively than amorphous B-layers, providing higher flux-pinning force that resulted in higher Jc of the MgB2/Ni multilayer film than the MgB 2/B multilayer film.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering