National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: A pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries

Cristina Taddei, Rod Jackson, Bin Zhou, Honor Bixby, Goodarz Danaei, Mariachiara Di Cesare, Kari Kuulasmaa, Kaveh Hajifathalian, James Bentham, James E. Bennett, Wichai Aekplakorn, Renata Cifkova, Jean Dallongeville, Dirk Debacquer, Simona Giampaoli, Vilmundur Gudnason, Young Ho Khang, Tiina Laatikainen, Jimi Mann, Pedro Marques-VidalGeorgea Mensah, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Janina Petkeviciene, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Jennifer Servais, Stefan Söderberg, Bill Stavreski, Tom Wilsgaard, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Dong Zhao, Gretchen A. Stevens, Stefan Savin, Melanie J. Cowan, Leanne M. Riley, Majid Ezzati, Robert J. Adams, Wolfgang Ahrens, Philippe Amouyel, Antoinette Amuzu, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Inger Ariansen, Dominique Arveiler, Thor Aspelund, Juha Auvinen, Mária Avdicová, Maciej Banach, Piotr Bandosz, José R. Banegas, Carlo M. Barbagallo, Iqbal Bata, Louise A. Baur, Robert Beaglehole, Gailute Bernotiene, Yufang Bi, Asako Bienek, Cecilia Björkelund, Simona Bo, Bernhard O. Boehm, Marialaura Bonaccio, Vanina Bongard, Rossana Borchini, Herman Borghs, Juergen Breckenkamp, Hermann Brenner, Graziella Bruno, Markusa Busch, Antonio Cabreradeleón, Vincenzo Capuano, Felipe F. Casanueva, Juan Pablo Casas, Carmelo A. Caserta, Laura Censi, Fangfang Chen, Shuohua Chen, María Dolores Chirlaque, Belong Cho, Yumi Cho, Jerzy Chudek, Frank Claessens, Janine Clarke, Els Clays, Cyrus Cooper, Simona Costanzo, Dominique Cottel, Chris Cowell, Ana B. Crujeiras, Liufu Cui, Graziella D'Arrigo, Luc Dauchet, Guy De Backer, Dirk De Bacquer, Giovanni De Gaetano, Stefaan De Henauw, Delphine De Smedt, Elaine Dennison, Valérie Deschamps, Augusto Dicastelnuovo, Annette J. Dobson, Chiara Donfrancesco, Angela Döring, Wojciech Drygas, Yong Du, Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Robert Eggertsen, Ulf Ekelund, Roberto Elosua, Johan G. Eriksson, Alun Evans, David Faeh, Francisco J. Felix-Redondo, Daniel Fernández-Bergés, Marika Ferrari, Jean Ferrieres, Joseph D. Finn, Ann Sofie Forslund, Maria Forsner, Guillermo Frontera, Yuki Fujita, Zbigniew Gaciong, Fabio Galvano, Jingli Gao, Manoli Garcia-De-La-Hera, Sarahp Garnett, Jean Michel Gaspoz, Magda Gasull, Louise Gates, Francesco Gianfagna, Tiffany K. Gill, Jonathan Giovannelli, David Goltzman, Marcela Gonzalezgross, Frederic Gottrand, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Dušan Grafnetter, Ronald D. Gregor, Tomasz Grodzicki, Giuseppe Grosso, Grabriella Gruden, Dongfeng Gu, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Elias F. Gudmundsson, Idris Guessous, Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir, Felix Gutzwiller, Rebecca Hardy, Jun Hata, Teresa Haugsgjerd, Alison J. Hayes, Jiang He, Yuna He, Sauli Herrala, Ilpo Tapanihihtaniemi, Michael Hobbs, Wilma M. Hopman, José Maríahuerta, Inge Huybrechts, Licia Iacoviello, Anna G. Iannone, Nayu Ikeda, Masanori Iwasaki, Konrad Jamrozik, Imre Janszky, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Grazyna Jasienska, Garry Jennings, Seung Lyeal Jeong, Chao Qiangjiang, Michel Joffres, Jari J. Jokelainen, Jost B. Jonas, Jacek Jóźwiak, Eero O. Kajantie, Jussi Kauhanen, Ulrich Keil, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mathilde Kersting, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Stefan Kiechl, Jeongseon Kim, Yeon Yong Kim, Jurate Klumbiene, Michael Knoflach, Stephanie Ko, Elin Kolle, Raija Korpelainen, Seppo Koskinen, Katsuyasu Kouda, Wolfgang Kratzer, Susi Kriemler, Steinar Krokstad, Urhom Kujala, Pawel Kurjata, Tai Hinglam, Vera Lanska, Georg Lappas, Lars E. Laugsand, Jeonghee Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Yanping Li, Christa L. Lilly, Xu Lin, Lars Lind, Lauren Lissner, Jing Liu, Esther Lopez-Garcia, Roberto Lorbeer, José Eugeniolozano, Dalia Luksiene, Annamari Lundqvist, Robert Lundqvist, Per Lytsy, Guansheng Ma, Suka Machi, Stefania Maggi, Dianna J. Magliano, Jim I. Mann, Enzo Manzato, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Stela McLachlan, Rachael M. McLean, B. S. Scott, Aline Meirhaeghe, C. Christa, Patricia Metcalf, Jie Mi, Jody C. Miller, Luisa Moreno, Suzanne Morin, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Maria L. Muiesan, Jaakko Mursu, Harunobu Nakamura, Jana Námešná, M. Matthias, Eva Marianavarrete-Muñoz, William A. Neal, Ilona Nenko, Teemu J. Niiranen, Guang Ning, Marianna Noale, Sawada Norie, Davide Noto, Terence O'Neill, Dermot O'Reilly, Kyungwon Oh, Örn Olafsson, Fred Michelpaccaud, Andrzej Pajak, Luigi Palmieri, Francesco Panza, Winsome R. Parnell, Markku Peltonen, Annette Peters, Astrid Petersmann, Iris Pigeot, Lorenza Pilotto, Aleksandra Piwonska, Pedro Plans-Rubió, Miquel Porta, Jacqueline F. Price, Jardena J. Puder, Soilee Puhakka, Ricardas Radisauskas, Olli Raitakari, Rafel Ramos, Josep Redon, Fernando Rigo, Maríadel Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Dora Romaguera, Kimmo Ronkainen, Annika Rosengren, Joel G.R. Roy, Jean Bernard Ruidavets, Marcin Rutkowski, Benoit Salanave, Diego Salmerón, Veikko Salomaa, Jukka T. Salonen, Massimo Salvetti, Susana Sans, Jouko L. Saramies, Kai Uwe Saum, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Anja Schienkiewitz, Sabine Schipf, Carsteno Schmidt, Ben Schöttker, Sylvain Sebert, Abhijit Sen, Jonathan E. Shaw, Kenji Shibuya, Dong Wookshin, Rahman Shiri, Judith Simons, Leon A. Simons, Michael Sjöström, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Emily Sonestedt, Aicha Soumare, Jan A. Staessen, Maria G. Stathopoulou, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Peter Stehle, Jutta Stieber, Doris Stöckl, Jakub Stokwiszewski, Johan Sundström, Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Eng Jootan, Anne Taylor, Grethe Tell, Lutgarde Thijs, Hanna K. Tolonen, Roman Topór-Madry, María Josétormo, Maties Torrent, Shoichiro Tsugane, Tomi Pekka Tuomainen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Christophe Tzourio, Hannu M.T. Uusitalo, Koen Vanherck, Dirk Vanderschueren, Diego Vanuzzo, Lars Vatten, Tomas Vega, Giovanni Veronesi, Jesus Vioque, Jyrkik Virtanen, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Peter Vollenweider, Sari Voutilainen, Martine Vrijheid, Aline Wagner, Anne Wagner, Ming Dong Wang, Qian Wang, Ya Xingwang, S. Goya Wannamethee, Wenbin Wei, Andrzej Wiecek, Johann Willeit, Peter Willeit, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Andrew Wong, Mark Woodward, Aleksander Giwercmanwu, Frederick C. Wu, Shouling Wu, Haiquan Xu, Liang Xu, Weili Yan, Xiaoguang Yang, Xingwang Ye, Akihiro Yoshihara, Sabina Zambon, Wenhua Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol have opposite associations with coronary heart disease, multi-country reports of lipid trends only use total cholesterol (TC). Our aim was to compare trends in total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in Asian and Western countries. Methods: We pooled 458 population-based studies with 82.1 million participants in 23 Asian and Western countries. We estimated changes in mean total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio by country, sex and age group. Results: Since ∼1980, mean TC increased in Asian countries. In Japan and South Korea, the TC rise was due to rising HDL cholesterol, which increased by up to 0.17 mmol/L per decade in Japanese women; in China, it was due to rising non-HDL cholesterol. TC declined in Western countries, except in Polish men. The decline was largest in Finland and Norway, at ∼0.4 mmol/L per decade. The decline in TC in most Western countries was the net effect of an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decline in non-HDL cholesterol, with the HDL cholesterol increase largest in New Zealand and Switzerland. Mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio declined in Japan, South Korea and most Western countries, by as much as ∼0.7 per decade in Swiss men (equivalent to ∼26% decline in coronary heart disease risk per decade). The ratio increased in China. Conclusions: HDL cholesterol has risen and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio has declined in many Western countries, Japan and South Korea, with only a weak correlation with changes in TC or non-HDL cholesterol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-192
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Volume49
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology

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