Background: While angioectasia is an important cause of acute hematochezia, relevant clinical features remain unclear. This study aims to reveal risk factors, clinical outcomes, and the effectiveness of therapeutic endoscopy for patients with acute hematochezia due to angioectasia. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at 49 Japanese hospitals between January 2010 and December 2019, enrolling patients hospitalized for acute hematochezia (CODE BLUE-J study). Baseline factors and clinical outcomes for angioectasia were analyzed. Results: Among 10,342 patients with acute hematochezia, 129 patients (1.2%) were diagnosed with angioectasia by colonoscopy. The following factors were significantly associated with angioectasia: chronic kidney disease, liver disease, female, body mass index < 25, and anticoagulant use. Patients with angioectasia were at a significant increased risk of blood transfusions compared to those without angioectasia (odds ratio [OR] 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–4.02). Among patients with angioectasia, 36 patients (28%) experienced rebleeding during 1-year follow-up. The 1-year cumulative rebleeding rates were 37.0% in the endoscopic clipping group, 14.3% in the coagulation group, and 32.8% in the conservative management group. Compared to conservative management, coagulation therapy significantly reduced rebleeding risk (P = 0.038), while clipping did not (P = 0.81). Multivariate analysis showed coagulation therapy was an independent factor for reducing rebleeding risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40; 95% CI 0.16–0.96). Conclusions: Our data showed patients with angioectasia had a greater comorbidity burden and needed more blood transfusions in comparison with those without angioectasia. To reduce rebleeding risk, coagulation therapy can be superior for controlling hematochezia secondary to angioectasia.
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