Background: We aimed to identify the candidate prostate cancer patients suitable for neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: This study included 711 Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who were treated with RP between 2000 and 2013. Patients were treated with or without neoadjuvant ADT before RP. The prognostic significance of neoadjuvant ADT on biochemical recurrence (BCR) was analyzed according to various clinicopathological characteristics. Results: BCR occurred in 186 (26.2%) of 711 patients. The group treated with neoadjuvant ADT showed higher levels of prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis and advanced clinical T-stage, but suppressed pathological T-stage. Neoadjuvant ADT was not associated with the risk of BCR. In subgroup analysis, neoadjuvant ADT was significantly associated with increased BCR in patients aged >65 years [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.04 (1.13–3.43), P = 0.020]. Among the 53 patients with available serum testosterone levels, neoadjuvant ADT was associated with the risk of BCR according to serum testosterone levels. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that neoadjuvant ADT showed potential deleterious effects in older patients and patients with lower serum testosterone levels, while a possible improved prognosis in patients with high serum testosterone levels treated with neoadjuvant ADT was suggested, warranting further exploration.
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