Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition where patches of skin become darker in color due to excess melanin production upon UV exposure leading to melasma, which are lentigines or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation that psychologically affecting a great number of people. The present study investigates the anti-melanogenic effect of Butyroside D and the underling mechanism. After the confirmation of the non-cytotoxic effect of Butyroside D on B16F10 cells, we proceeded with analyzing the impact of the treatment at low and high concentration (i.e., 0.2 μM and 2 μM) using gene profiling analysis and examined the differentiation in gene expression. Our results identify cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), Wnt/β-catenin and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways to be downregulated upon treatment with Butyroside D. These pathways were targeted to further validate the effect of Butyroside D on membrane receptors melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit), related microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and consequently tyrosinase (TYR), and tyrosine-related protein-1 (TYRP-1) that were all shown to be downregulated and, therefore, leading to the repression of melanin biosynthesis. Finally, the anti-melanogenic effect of Butyroside D was confirmed on human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) cells by inhibiting the activation of cAMP pathway generally mediated through α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and MC1R. Overall, this study suggests the potential applicability of this purified compound for the prevention of hyperpigmentation conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry