The objective of this study was to prepare a supersaturated formulation based on formation of a co-amorphous system of a drug and a coformer in order to enhance skin permeation. Atenolol (ATE) and urea (URE) were used as the model drug and the coformer, respectively. Thermal analysis of physical mixtures of ATE and URE showed decreases in the melting points and the formation of a co-amorphous system which was in a supercooled liquid state because of a low glass transition temperature. Supersaturated solutions of ATE and URE at different molar ratios in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) were prepared. The precipitations were observed under storage at 25 °C for all formulations except for ATE-URE at 1:8 molar ratio which remained in the supersaturated state for 2 months. 1H NMR analysis confirmed the interactions between ATE and URE in PEG400. The ATE-URE supersaturated formulation showed higher permeability for mice skin than that of ATE saturated formulation, which was superior to the expected permeability from the degree of supersaturation. We concluded that co-amorphous based supersaturated formulation offers much promise for transdermal drug delivery.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science