In this paper, we present noncontact and noninvasive vital signal detection using a microwave reflectometer. Elimination of noise components due to random movement of human subjects has been the biggest issue for microwave measurement. Appropriate filtering, amplitude control of the reflectometer signal, and cross correlation among multiple reflectometers together with new algorithms have enabled motion artifact elimination, signal peak detection, and data processing for various parameters related to heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). We focus here on the real time measurements of instantaneous HR and HRV for practical use. The evaluation by microwave reflectometry is completely noninvasive and feasible even through clothing, which is extremely effective for health maintenance in daily life as well as for preventing sudden death related to, for example, coronary heart disease and ventricular arrhythmia.
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