Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant that can protect cells under oxidative stress. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure and map the distribution of GSH in live animals is needed. To image the distribution of GSH levels in specific brain regions, a new method using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging with a nitroxide imaging probe was developed. Pixel-based mapping of brain GSH levels was successfully obtained by using the linear relationship between reduction rates for nitroxides in brains, measured by an in vivo EPR imager, and brain GSH levels, measured by an in vitro biochemical assay. The newly developed method was applied to a kindling mouse model induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to visualize changes in GSH levels in specific brain regions after seizure. The obtained map of brain GSH levels clearly indicated decreased GSH levels around the hippocampal region compared to control mice.
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