Nonsegmental vitiligo is an acquired leukoderma characterized by the destruction of melanocytes. Autoimmunity is the most widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of nonsegmental vitiligo. Increased oxidative stress and decreased expression of E-cadherin may facilitate the loss of melanocytes. Because vitiligo preferentially affects cosmetically sensitive regions such as the face, hands, and genital area, it imposes significant psychological and social burdens. In this review, we discuss recent topics in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic background, and therapeutic advances of nonsegmental vitiligo.
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