Background: Various styrylbenzene compounds were synthesized and evaluated as mainly Aβ amyloid sensors. These compounds, however, cannot be used for detecting amyloid deposition in peripheral nerves because of the inherent sensitivity of the compounds. These compounds often generate false positives especially in the basement membrane of blood vessels in histochemical studies. To overcome these problems, we must first synthesize other styryl compounds for detecting amyloid fibrils in tissues. Methods: A wide variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical styrylbenzene derivatives were synthesized and then these compounds were used to detect amyloid fibrils in autopsy and biopsy samples from patients with various systemic and localized forms of amyloidosis such as familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA), amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, localized AL amyloidosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Results: 1-Methoxy-2,5-bis-styrylbenzene and 2-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)-2,5-bis-styrylbenzene (EEEFSB) detected amyloid fibrils in both in vitro and in vivo histopathological studies. 1-Methoxy-2,5-bis-styrylbenzene also showed a high strength of fluorescence with amyloid deposition in peripheral nerves in a patient with FAP. Conclusions: 1-Methoxy-2,5-bis-styrylbenzene and EEEFSB may prove a useful tool for diagnosing amyloidosis, not only in a histochemical study but also in whole body amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical