A proposed mechanism underlying the effect of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) treatment for bladder cancer cells is as follows: BCG-induced crosslinking of cell-surface receptors results in the activation of signaling cascades, including cell-cycle regulators. However, the clinical significance of cell-cycle regulators such as p21 and p27 is controversial. Here we investigated the relationship between BCG exposure and p21 and p27. We used confocal laser microscopy to examine the expression levels of pKi67, p21 and p27 in T24 cells (derived from human urothelial carcinoma) exposed six times to BCG. We performed dual immunofluorescence staining methods for p21 and p27 and observed the localization of nuclear and cytoplasm expressions. We investigated the priority of p27 over p21 regarding nuclear expression by using p27 Stealth RNAi™ (p27-siRNA). With 2-h BCG exposure, the nuclear-expression level of p21 and p27 was highest, while pKi67 was lowest. The percentage of double nuclear-expression of p21 and p27 in BCG cells was significantly higher than that in control cells during the 1st to 6th exposure (P < 0.05), and the expression of pKi67 showed the opposite of this pattern. Approximately 10% of the nuclear p21 was independent of p27, whereas the cytoplasmic p21 was dependent on p27. Our results suggested that the nuclear co-expression of p21 and p27 caused effective cell-cycle arrest, and thus the evaluation of the nuclear co-expression of p21 and p27 might help determine the effectiveness of BCG treatment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology