In a musculoskeletal system like a tendon-driven robot, redundant actuation is necessary because muscles (or mechanical parts such as tendons) can transmit tension only unidirectionally. This redundancy yields internal force among muscles, which has a particular field of potential energy. Using internal force as a feedforward input, a musculoskeletal system can achieve feedforward position control with no sensory feedback. This paper studies the feedforward position control coming from the redundancy for a non-pulley musculoskeletal system. Targeting a planar two-link system with six muscles as a case study, the motion convergence depending on the muscular arrangement is examined quasi-statically. The results point out that the convergence is extremely sensitive to the muscular arrangement, and adding small offsets for the muscular connected points can remarkably improve the positioning performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Human-Computer Interaction
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Science Applications