Numerical Simulation on Pillar Design for Longwall Mining under Weak Immediate Roof and Floor Strata in Indonesia

Hiroto Hashikawa, Pisith Mao, Takashi Sasaoka, Akihiro Hamanaka, Hideki Shimada, Ulaankhuu Batsaikhan, Jiro Oya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In Indonesia, the adoption of the underground coal mining method is discussed to extend coal production. However, the geological conditions in Indonesia are very weak. In particular, the mechanical properties of the immediate roof/floor in shallow depths are weaker than those of coal. Therefore, the control measures to maintain stability around the developing area should be discussed for safe longwall mining operations. This study discusses the design of safety pillar width in longwall mining under weak geological conditions by using FLAC3D. The study reveals that the conventional equations for the determination of the pillar width, i.e., Obert-Duvall, Holland-Gaddy, and Bieniawski equations, can be adopted to maintain the stability of the pillar itself but are not suitable for the stability of the longwall face because of the influence of the extracted neighboring panels. Additionally, the increase of the pillar width can significantly reduce the fracture zone around the longwall face. Also, increasing the setting load of the powered support can slightly improve the stability. In the pillar design, both the pillar strength and the stability of the longwall face under weak geological conditions need to be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16508
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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