Herein, we show that the enhanced osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) biomaterial, recently identified as an important element in hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites involved in the initial hydroxyapatite crystal expansion in mammal bones, results from an enhanced chemical property, stemming from the presence of lattice strain and dislocations. Two types of OCPs were synthesized by wet-chemical processing in the presence (c-OCP) and absence (w-OCP) of gelatin, respectively, and subjected to structural, chemical, and biological analyses. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses revealed that c-OCP crystals contained approximately six times higher edge dislocations with Burgers vectors perpendicular to a-axis than that in the case of w-OCP. The dissolution of c-OCP crystal in tris-HCl buffer occurred toward the long axis of the crystal, most likely, toward the lattice strain along the c-axis direction, while w-OCP crystal dissolved toward the a-axis direction. The study suggested that the increment of internal energy by the higher dislocation density contributed promoting c-OCP dissolution and hydrolysis through decreasing the activation energy. c-OCP crystal displayed enhanced in vitro mesenchymal stem 2D cell and 3D spheroid differentiation, in vivo bone formation, and apatite crystallographic orientation in critical-sized rat calvarial defect model as compared to w-OCP crystal, at the same time, converting to apatite structure earlier than w-OCP. The present study demonstrates that dislocation-related dissolution along with enhanced conversion of OCP is a determinant in bone induction, which may be relevant to normal bone development utilizing OCP biomaterials.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)