One Pixel Attack for Fooling Deep Neural Networks

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233 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent research has revealed that the output of deep neural networks (DNNs) can be easily altered by adding relatively small perturbations to the input vector. In this paper, we analyze an attack in an extremely limited scenario where only one pixel can be modified. For that we propose a novel method for generating one-pixel adversarial perturbations based on differential evolution (DE). It requires less adversarial information (a black-box attack) and can fool more types of networks due to the inherent features of DE. The results show that 67.97% of the natural images in Kaggle CIFAR-10 test dataset and 16.04% of the ImageNet (ILSVRC 2012) test images can be perturbed to at least one target class by modifying just one pixel with 74.03% and 22.91% confidence on average. We also show the same vulnerability on the original CIFAR-10 dataset. Thus, the proposed attack explores a different take on adversarial machine learning in an extreme limited scenario, showing that current DNNs are also vulnerable to such low dimension attacks. Besides, we also illustrate an important application of DE (or broadly speaking, evolutionary computation) in the domain of adversarial machine learning: creating tools that can effectively generate low-cost adversarial attacks against neural networks for evaluating robustness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8601309
Pages (from-to)828-841
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics

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