Background. Despite improvement in immunosuppressive therapy, long-term kidney allograft survival remains a major challenge. The outcomes of therapy with everolimus (EVR) and standard-dose tacrolimus (Tac) have not been compared with those of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and standard-dose Tac in recipients of de novo ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods. This retrospective, observational, single-center, propensity score matching (PSM) study compared the outcomes of EVR and standard-dose Tac with those of MMF and standard-dose Tac following de novo ABOi LDKT. In total, 153 recipients of ABOi LDKT between January 2008 and March 2018 were screened for inclusion in the study. The variables considered for PSM were: recipient age/sex, duration of dialysis, cytomegalovirus mismatch (seronegative recipient and seropositive donor), cause of kidney disease, donor age/sex, and numbers of mismatches (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR). After PSM, there were 21 patients in each group (n = 42 overall). Results. Four patients in the EVR group and 1 patient in the MMF group were withdrawn because of adverse effects. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in 1-year outcomes regarding patient death, graft loss, delayed graft function, biopsy-proven acute rejection, infection requiring hospital admission, or estimated glomerular filtration rate. The 1-year protocol biopsy showed that the severity of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy was significantly milder in the EVR group than in the MMF group. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the renal efficacy and safety of EVR and standard-dose Tac in recipients of de novo ABOi LDKT are comparable with those of MMF and standard-dose Tac.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes