We investigated the optimal surface chemistry of peptide immobilization for on-chip phosphorylation analysis. In our previous study, we used a heterobifunctional cross-linker sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxalate (SSMCC) to immobilize cysteine-terminated peptides on an amine-modified gold surface. The study revealed that the phosphorylation efficiency and rate were low (only 20% at 2 h) comparing with the reaction in solution. In this study, to improve the phosphorylation efficiency, the kinase substrates were immobilized via poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a flexible, hydrophilic polymer. An improvement in cSrc phosphorylation was achieved (60% at 1 h) from using a PEG-inserted peptide and SSMCC. However, no phosphorylation could be detected when the peptide was immobilized with a PEG-containing cross-linker. Fluorescence-labeled peptide studies revealed that the use of longer cross-linkers resulted in lower immobilization density. We considered that the flexible PEG linker was preferable to secure high phosphorylation efficiency for the immobilized peptide, probably due to the improvement of cSrc accessibility and peptide mobility, but the immobilization protocol is critical for keeping high density of the peptide immobilization. In addition, such an accelerating effect of PEG linker against on-chip phosphorylation of an immobilized peptide may depend on kinase structures or the position of the active center, because no improvement of on-chip peptide phosphorylation was observed in protein kinase A. However, PEG linker also did not suppress the phosphorylation in protein kinase A. Thus, we concluded that SSMCC and PEGylated peptide will be a good combination for the surface chemistry of on-chip phosphorylation in peptide array.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry