To optimize the calixarene structure for a phase-transfer catalyst, we modified the upper rim with lipophilic tert-octyl groups and the lower rim with O(CH2CH2O)mMe (m=1, 2, and 3). Through two-phase solvent extraction, 1H NMR studies on the metal-binding site, and phase-transfer catalysis we have reached conclusions that (i) lipophilic groups introduced into the upper rim effectively enhance the catalytic activity whereas (ii) to compose an effective ionophoric cavity on the lower rim, OCH2CH2OMe (i.e., m=1) suffices and m=2 and m=3 rather decrease the catalytic activity and cause emulsification. The optimized calixarene-based phase-transfer catalyst showed the catalytic activity comparable with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery
- Organic Chemistry