Objective: Oral fungal infection is generally associated with dysbiosis related to antibiotic use, immunodeficiency, or frailty. However, fungal colonization in a typical population without apparent symptoms and its associated conditions are poorly understood. In this study, oral fungal colonization in community-dwelling and independently living elderly populations was evaluated and factors affecting fungal colonization were analyzed. Subjects and Methods: The subjects (410; 181 males and 229 females) were 75–99 years of age; those under prior antibiotic use were excluded. Fungal populations in the saliva were evaluated by PCR-based molecular techniques. Body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, and oral health conditions were examined. Results: Salivary fungal amounts exceeded 104 CFU/ml in 63 (15.4%) of 410 subjects. Candida albicans was most frequently detected (98.4%), followed by Candida glabrata (54.0%), and Candida dubliniensis (38.1%) in those subjects with fungi at 104 CFU/ml or over. Fungi at 104 CFU/ml or over in the presence of C. glabrata or C. dubliniensis was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. dubliniensis dominated the oral mycobiome in Japanese community-dwelling elderly. Lower BMI might signify compromised health status and thus could result in susceptibility to specific candidiasis by C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis.
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