ATP and its derivatives (nucleoside polyphosphates (NPPs)) are implicated in many biological events, so their rapid and convenient detection is important. In particular, live cell detection of NPPs at specific local regions of cells could greatly contribute understanding of the complicated roles of NPPs. We report herein the design of two new fluorescent chemosensors that detect the dynamics of NPPs in specific regions of living cells. To achieve imaging of NPPs on plasma membrane surfaces (2-2Zn(II)), a lipid anchor was introduced into xanthene-based Zn(II) complex 1-2Zn(II), which was previously developed as a turn-on type fluorescent chemosensor for NPPs. Meanwhile, for subcellular imaging of ATP in mitochondria, we designed rhodamine-type Zn(II) complex 3-2Zn(II), which possesses a cationic pyronin ring instead of xanthene. Detailed spectroscopic studies revealed that 2-2Zn(II) and 3-2Zn(II) can sense NPPs with a several-fold increase of their fluorescence intensities through a sensing mechanism similar to 1-2Zn(II), involving binding-induced recovery of the conjugated form of the xanthene or pyronin ring. In live cell imaging, 2-2Zn(II) containing a lipid anchor selectively localized on the plasma membrane surface and detected the extracellular release of NPPs during cell necrosis induced by streptolysin O. On the other hand, rhodamine-type complex 3-2Zn(II) spontaneously localized at mitochondria inside cells, and sensed the local increase of ATP concentration during apoptosis. Multicolor images were obtained through simultaneous use of 2-2Zn(II) and 3-2Zn(II), allowing detection of the dynamics of ATP in different cellular compartments at the same time.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry