Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of nonpredatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size. Moreover, we found a sexual dimorphism in three glomeruli (macroglomeruli) located at the entrance of the antennal nerves, which are 15 times bigger in males than their homologs in females. We additionally deduced the target glomeruli of olfactory sensory neurons housed in cognate types of sensilla by degenerating the sensory afferents. The macroglomeruli received sensory inputs from grooved peg sensilla, which are present in a large number at the proximal part of the males' antennae. Furthermore, our findings suggest that glomeruli at the posteriodorsal part of the antennal lobes receive sensory information from putative hygro- and thermosensitive sensilla. The origins of projections connected to the protocerebrum are also discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1685–1706, 2017.
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