This study aimed to investigate allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes and risk factors in adult patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) using Japanese registry data. Between 2002 and 2012, a total 12,169 adult patients underwent HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Of these, 565 with t-MN were identified. The median patient age was 54 years (range, 16 to 80 years). Three hundred and ninety-eight patients had AML, 154 had MDS, and 13 had CMML. Lymphoma and breast cancer were the major previous malignancies. Favorable karyotypes were detected in 84 patients, and poor karyotypes were identified in 235. Two-thirds (66%) of the patients were in nonremission at HCT. Overall survival at 3 years in patients with t-MN was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27% to 35%), equivalent to that in those with secondary MN (32%; 95% CI, 30% to 34%), and 44% in the de novo cohort (95% CI, 43% to 45%). The cumulative incidence of relapse and nonrelapse mortality at 3 years was 40% and 33%, respectively. The outcomes of HCT for t-MN in Japan were comparable to those in large-scale studies in Europe and the United States.
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