Outcomes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding have not been compared according to hospital capacity. We aimed to perform a propensity score-matched cohort study with path and mediation analyses for acute hematochezia patients. Hospitals were divided into high- versus low-volume hospitals for emergency medical services. Rebleeding and death within 30 days were compared. Computed tomography, early colonoscopy (colonoscopy performed within 24 h), and endoscopic therapies were included as mediators. A total of 2644 matched pairs were yielded. The rebleeding rate within 30 days was not significant between high- and low-volume hospitals (16% vs. 17%, P = 0.44). The mortality rate within 30 days was significantly higher in the high-volume cohort than in the low-volume cohort (1.7% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.003). Treatment at high-volume hospitals was not a significant factor for rebleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79–1.06; P = 0.23), but was significant for death within 30 days (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.17–3.52; P = 0.012) on multivariate logistic regression after adjusting for patients’ characteristics. Mediation effects were not observed, except for rebleeding within 30 days in high-volume hospitals through early colonoscopy. However, the direct effect of high-volume hospitals on rebleeding was not significant. High-volume hospitals did not improve the outcomes of acute hematochezia patients.
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