Objectives: In this study, our aim was to compare the outcomes of everolimus versus mycophenolate mofetil plus standard-dose tacrolimus immunosup-pression in patients who received de novo kidney transplant at our center in Fukuoka, Japan. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, observational, single-center, inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis study, 225 recipients who underwent kidney transplant at our center between January 2013 and December 2018 were included. The variables considered were recipient age/sex, duration of dialysis, cytomegalovirus mismatch (seronegative recipient and seropositive donor), cause of end-stage renal disease, donor age/sex, and number of HLA mismatches. Results: Our analyses included 85 transplant recipients in the everolimus group and 141 transplant recipients in the mycophenolate mofetil group (n = 226 overall). There were no significant differences between the groups at 1 year for incidence of patient death and allograft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection, BK virus-associated nephropathy, surgical complications, delayed graft function, and posttransplant diabetes mellitus. Incidence of cytomegalovirus infection and estimated glomerular filtration rate were significantly lower in the everolimus group than in the mycophenolate mofetil group. Posttransplant triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein were higher in the everolimus group than in the mycophenolate mofetil group. Multivariate ordered logistic analysis showed that older donor age and an acute rejection episode, but not induction with everolimus or mean tacrolimus trough concentration throughout the first postoperative year, were significant risk factors for severity of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy at the 1-year protocol biopsy (P = .004 and P < .001, respectively). Conclusions: Short-term outcomes with everolimus plus standard-dose tacrolimus in recipients of de novo kidney transplant were comparable to those with mycophenolate mofetil plus standard-dose tacrolimus.
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