G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton by activating the Rac subfamily of small GTPases. The guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) P-Rex1 is engaged downstream of GPCRs and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in many cell types, and promotes tumorigenic signalling and metastasis in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. Although P-Rex1-dependent functions have been attributed to its GEF activity towards Rac1, we show that P-Rex1 also acts as a GEF for the Rac-related GTPase RhoG, both in vitro and in GPCR-stimulated primary mouse neutrophils. Furthermore, loss of either P-Rex1 or RhoG caused equivalent reductions in GPCR-driven Rac activation and Rac-dependent NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting they both function upstream of Rac in this system. Loss of RhoG also impaired GPCR-driven recruitment of the Rac GEF DOCK2, and Factin, to the leading edge of migrating neutrophils. Taken together, our results reveal a new signalling hierarchy in which P-Rex1, acting as a GEF for RhoG, regulates Rac-dependent functions indirectly through RhoG-dependent recruitment of DOCK2. These findings thus have broad implications for our understanding of GPCR signalling to Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology