Palladium Nanoparticle Incorporated Porous Activated Carbon: Electrochemical Detection of Toxic Metal Ions

Pitchaimani Veerakumar, Vediyappan Veeramani, Shen Ming Chen, Rajesh Madhu, Shang Bin Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A facile method has been developed for fabricating selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors for the detection of toxic metal ions, which invokes incorporation of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on porous activated carbons (PACs). The PACs, which were derived from waste biomass feedstock (fruit peels), possess desirable textural properties and porosities favorable for dispersion of Pd NPs (ca. 3-4 nm) on the graphitic PAC substrate. The Pd/PAC composite materials so fabricated were characterized by a variety of different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, gas physisorption/chemisorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray photon spectroscopies. The Pd/PAC-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were exploited as electrochemical sensors for the detection of toxic heavy metal ions, viz., Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Hg2+, which showed superior performances for both individual as well as simultaneous detections. For simultaneous detection of Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Hg2+, a linear response in the ion concentration range of 0.5-5.5, 0.5-8.9, 0.5-5.0, and 0.24-7.5 μM, with sensitivity of 66.7, 53.8, 41.1, and 50.3 μA μM-1 cm-2, and detection limit of 41, 50, 66, and 54 nM, respectively, was observed. Moreover, the Pd/PAC-modified GCEs also show perspective applications in detection of metal ions in real samples, as illustrated in this study for a milk sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1319-1326
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 20 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

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