Background: We aimed to determine the cumulative rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the risk factors for DM in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan. Methods: We conducted a follow-up survey of CP in 2002 in patients registered as having CP in 1994, and confirmed 656 patients to be checked in regard to the survey items concerning diabetes. We analyzed the cumulative rate of DM and the risk factors for DM over an 8-year follow up period. Results: In 1994, 35.1% of 656 CP patients had DM, and the incidence of diabetes had increased to 50.4% in 2002. Of 418 patients without diabetes in 1994, 28.9% (121/418) were newly diagnosed with DM in 2002. Alcoholic CP was the most common type of CP in patients with newly developed diabetes, accounting for 67.8%. The incidence of DM was highest in those with alcoholic CP (34.3%) followed by idiopathic CP (23.0%). The risk of diabetes increased 1.32-fold after the onset of pancreatic calcification. Of 121 patients with newly diagnosed DM in 2002, 37 (30.6%) had pancreatic stones in 1994 and 49 (40.5%) had a stone in 2002. The highest incidence of newly diagnosed DM was observed in patients with continuous alcoholic intake (40.9%). Patients treated with camostat mesilate developed DM less frequently than those without camostat mesilate. Conclusions: The present study showed that the incidence of DM in patients with CP increased with time. Of 418 CP patients without DM in 1994, 28.9% developed DM over a period of 8 years. Continuous alcoholic intake aggravated CP and increased the risk of DM in those with CP.
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