Patient-specific prediction of joint line convergence angle after high tibial osteotomy using a whole-leg radiograph standing on lateral-wedge insole

Yukio Akasaki, Hideki Mizu-uchi, Satoshi Hamai, Hidetoshi Tsushima, Shinya Kawahara, Tomohiro Horikawa, Yasuharu Nakashima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a whole-leg radiograph standing on lateral-wedge insole (LWI) for predicting the change in joint line convergence angle (JLCA) before vs. after high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Methods: Forty knees with medial osteoarthritis underwent open-wedge HTO. Pre-operatively, all patients had whole-leg radiographs taken in three different conditions: supine, standing, and standing on LWI inclined at 20°. A standing whole-leg radiograph was also obtained post-operatively. Radiological measurements including JLCA and percentage of mechanical axis (%MA) were compared. Using pre-operative radiographs, correction angles were calculated with the target %MA at 62.5%. Correlations between the difference in calculated correction angle among the three pre-operative conditions and the change in JLCA before vs. after HTO were assessed. Results: In the pre-operative standing conditions, the mean JLCA of 3.8° was significantly decreased to 3.2° using LWI, which did not differ from post-operative JLCA of 3.1°. Mean %MA significantly shifted laterally from 20.6 to 24.8% using LWI, and was strongly correlated with the change in JLCA (coefficient, 0.83). Calculated correction angles differed significantly among the three pre-operative conditions. The difference in calculated correction angle between standing with and without LWI was strongly correlated to the change in standing JLCA before vs. after HTO (coefficient, 0.73). Conclusion: Larger differences in calculated correction angles between pre-operative radiographs standing with and without LWI predicted larger changes in JLCA after HTO. Whole-leg radiograph standing on LWI is a promising modality for correct pre-operative planning considering patient-specific changes in JLCA before vs. after HTO. Level of evidence: IV.

Original languageEnglish
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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