IL-17A-producing γδ T cells in mice consist primarily of Vγ6+ tissue-resident cells and Vγ4+ circulating cells. How these γδ T cell subsets are regulated during homeostasis and cancer remains poorly understood. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and flow cytommetry, we show that lung Vγ4+ and Vγ6+ cells from tumor-free and tumor-bearing mice express contrasting cell surface molecules as well as distinct co-inhibitory molecules, which function to suppress their expansion. Vγ6+ cells express constitutively high levels of PD-1, whereas Vγ4+ cells upregulate TIM-3 in response to tumor-derived IL-1β and IL-23. Inhibition of either PD-1 or TIM-3 in mammary tumor-bearing mice increased Vγ6+ and Vγ4+ cell numbers, respectively. We found that genetic deletion of γδ T cells elicits responsiveness to anti-PD-1 and anti-TIM-3 immunotherapy in a mammary tumor model that is refractory to T cell checkpoint inhibitors, indicating that IL-17A-producing γδ T cells instigate resistance to immunotherapy. Together, these data demonstrate how lung IL-17A-producing γδ T cell subsets are differentially controlled by PD-1 and TIM-3 in steady-state and cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy