Periodic variation in bile acids controls circadian changes in uric acid via regulation of xanthine oxidase by the orphan nuclear receptor PPARα

Takumi Kanemitsu, Yuya Tsurudome, Naoki Kusunose, Masayuki Oda, Naoya Matsunaga, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. We found that the orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activated the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppressed XOD transactivation. The synthesis of bile acids is known to be under the control of the circadian clock, and we observed that the time-dependent accumulation of bile acids in hepatic cells interfered with the recruitment of the co-transcriptional activator p300 to PPARα, thereby repressing XOD expression. This time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the hepatic expression of XOD, which, in turn, led to circadian alterations in uric acid production. Finally, we also demonstrated that the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the XOD inhibitor febuxostat was enhanced by administering it at the time of day before hepatic XOD activity increased. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for the circadian alterations in uric acid production and also underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate time of day for administering XOD inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21397-21406
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume292
Issue number52
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 29 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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