Peroxisome is an organelle conserved in almost all eukaryotic cells with a variety of functions in cellular metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation, synthesis of ether glycerolipid plasmalogens, and redox homeostasis. Such metabolic functions and the exclusive importance of peroxisomes have been highlighted in fatal human genetic disease called peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs). Recent advances in this field have identified over 30 PEX genes encoding peroxins as essential factors for peroxisome biogenesis in various species from yeast to humans. Functional delineation of the peroxins has revealed that peroxisome biogenesis comprises the processes, involving peroxisomal membrane assembly, matrix protein import, division, and proliferation. Catalase, the most abundant peroxisomal enzyme, catalyzes decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Peroxisome plays pivotal roles in the cellular redox homeostasis and the response to oxidative stresses, depending on intracellular localization of catalase.